See how to support Emgineer's Tool Kit



This page contains reports with information useful  to the structural engineer. The page will be incorporating more material to cover basic information on many areas of analysis. Wind Turbines reports have an exclusive page - Reports - Wind Turbines.


ANSI/AF&PA NDS-2005 (approx, 464 KB)


This report provides a series of shear and moment diagrams, with respective formulas, for design of beams under various static loading and boundary conditions. For using the formulas with SI units you find all conversions on ToolKit - Unit Conversion.



AIAA 98-2062  (291 KB) 

Analytical and Finite Element Modeling of Riveted Lap Joints in Aircraft Structure

Y. Xiong and O. K. Bedair


Modeling procedures for the stress analysis of riveted lap joints in aircraft structure are proposed in this paper using both analytical and numerical methods. In the analytical method, a complex variational approach is employed to determine the stresses in joined plates containing single or multiple loaded holes. The effects of finite geometry are taken into account by the variational formulations. An iterative scheme is carried out to handle the deformation compatibility between all joined members. In the numerical method, finite element analyses are conducted using the commercial packages MSC/Patran and MSC/Nastran. Gap elements are used to simulate the rivet-hole interactions. Both linear and nonlinear deformations are considered. The two modeling procedures are complementary to each other. While the analytical method is efficient for parametric studies, the numerical method is capable of dealing with relatively more complicated geometry and loading conditions. Results of several example problems are presented and reasonably good agreement between the two modeling procedures is demonstrated.


NASA/TM-2000-210084  (955 KB) 

Advances in Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Metallic Aircraft Structures

J. C. Newman, Jr. 


This paper reviews some of the advances that have been made in stress analyses of cracked aircraft components, in the understanding of the fatigue and fatigue-crack growth process, and in the prediction of residual strength of complex aircraft structures with widespread fatigue damage. Finite-element analyses of cracked metallic structures are now used to determine accurate stress-intensity factors for cracks at structural details. Observations of small-crack behavior at open and rivet-loaded holes and the development of small-crack theory has lead to the prediction of stress-life behavior for components with stress concentrations under aircraft spectrum loading. Fatigue-crack growth under simulated aircraft spectra can now be predicted with the crack closure concept. Residual strength of cracked panels with severe out-of-plane deformations (buckling) in the presence of stiffeners and multiple-site damage can be predicted with advanced elastic-plastic finite-element analyses and the critical crack-tip-opening angle CTOA) fracture criterion. These advances are helping to assure continued safety of aircraft structures.


NASA CR 4750  (7,933 KB) 

Handbook of Analytical Methods for Textile Composites

Brian N. Cox and Gerry Flanagan


The purpose of this handbook is to introduce models and computer codes for predicting the properties of textile composites. The composites of primary interest are those best suited to applications in aircraft structures. This is first to say those ranked high in stiffness and strength; and many models are therefore discussed which detail the elastic regime and predict the proportional limit. But textile composites are also favoured for their superior damage tolerance. The handbook therefore includes several models for predicting the stress-strain response all the way to ultimate failure; methods for assessing work of fracture and notch sensitivity; and design rules for avoiding certain critical mechanisms of failure, such as delamination, by proper textile design.The textile classes receiving at least some treatment……


DOT/FAA/CT-93169. I  (5,020 KB) 

Damage Tolerance Assessment Handbook Volume I: Introduction - Fracture Mechanics - Fatigue Crack Propagation


Present airworthiness standards, FAR 25.571 [l-l], and advisory guidance [l-2] require the evaluation of damage tolerance for transport category airframe designs. Broadly speaking,damage tolerance refers to the ability of the design to prevent structural cracks from precipitating catastrophic fracture when the airframe is subjected to flight or ground loads. Transport categoryairframe structure is generally made damage tolerant by means of redundant (“fail-safe”) designs for which the inspection intervals are set to provide at least two inspection opportunities per number of flights or flight hours it would take for a visually detectable crack to grow large enough to cause a failure in flight. As part of the certification process….


NASA RP-1228 (23,687 KB) 

Fastener Design Manual

Richard T. Barret


This manual was written for design engineers to enable them to choose appropriate fasteners for their designs. Subject matter includes fastener material selection, platings, lubricants, corrosion, locking methods, washers, inserts, thread types and classes, fatigue loading, and fastener torque. A section on design criteria covers de derivation of torque formulas, loads on a fastener group, combining simultaneous shear and tension loads, pullout load for tapped holes, grip length, head styles, and fastener strengths. The second half of this manual presents general guidelines and selection criteria for rivets and lockbolts.




The methodology and criteria defined in this document shall be applicable when it is determined that a bolted joint requires preloading to successfully perform its function.Generally, bolts that experience increased axial tensile loads as a result of the applied external load will require preloading to reduce cyclic stresses, prevent pressure leakage, prevent joint separation, or increase system stiffness. This methodology ...


NASA TM 106943

Preloaded Joint Analysis Methodology for Space Flight Systems (165 KB)

Jeffrey A. Chambers


This report is a compilation of some of the most basic equations governing simple preloaded joint systemsand discusses the more common modes of failure associated with such hardware. It is intended to provide the mechanicaldesigner with the tools necessary for designing a basic bolted joint. Although the information presented is intended toaid in the engineering of space flight structures, the fundamentals are equally applicable to other forms of mechanicaldesign.


Reports were downloaded from many different sites or are linked to the copyright owner site (with authorization to They are unclassified and free domain information. In the improbable case of copyright protected or restrict material is found here, please contact us for immediate removal.


Go to Top